///////////////////// Site Slogans ////////// &name1=Guringai Aboriginal Tribal Link &name2=Re-uniting the clans &name3=Maroon Oomooliyan Goori Wahroong &name4=Still Caring for our Country ///////////////////// Buttons Name ////////// &menu1=Home &menu2=About Us &menu3=Services &menu4=Education &menu5=History &menu6=Contact Us ///////////////////// Mail File Config ////////// &mail_file=mail.php& ///////////////////// Copyright ////////// ©right=COPYRIGHT � 2010. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. ///////////////////// Privacy Policy ////////// &privacy_readmore_title1=Privacy Policy &privacy_readmore_txt1=Copyright Guringai Aboriginal Tribal Link ///////////// home //////////// &home_txt1=Welcome! &home_txt2=We are descendants of the original inhabitants of the Northern Sydney Region and Central Coast NSW Australia.

Bikalabarley / Murraring Walla / Giballee / Yaddung / Guringai / Wanangini Wahroong / yennieubu. Let us / walk / together / in / Guringai / Country / as one. Maroon - oomoolliyan / ah / Guringai / Wanangini Wahroong Take Care / of / Guringai / Country. &home_txt3=READ MORE &home_txt4=Famous Guries &home_txt5=Bungaree
He was our last tradiotional old man. He was the first Indigenous Australian to Sail around the country with Mathew Flinders and then Phillip Parker King. &home_txt6=Mosquito
“Hanging no good for black fellow…. very good for white fellow, for he used to it" &home_txt7=Latest News &home_txt8=The battle continues
We have been worKing with a team of people trying to save a very important site we have left at calga, the sand mine that owns the property the site is on wants to destroy all the surroundings and leave the site on a 60ft man made island with inadequate access.

05/12/2012
We had a gathering and AGM for members at Girakool National Park 10.00am - 1.00.pm congratualions to all new directors.

2009
We were given $5,500 to produce early learning language books thanks to the Department of Aboriginal Affairs.

12/23/2010
Professor Peter Read with the help of Julie Janson produced a series of three posters on the Sydney Language Grougps (us). They are displayed in Educational Instituions throughout our country.

27/10/2010
Tracey addressed Wyong Shire Council and opposed a notice of motion. That Darkinjung be recognised as the traditional owners by council. The notice was squashed and the subject has been moved to another day for further discussion. 2013 now and no further progress made to date.

Please note this is a work in progress
If anyone has anything meaningful to contribute, please email wozza@guringai.com.au thank you! &home_img1=images/index1.jpg& &home_img2=images/index2.jpg& &home_readmore_title1=Title Home #1 &home_readmore_txt1=Kuringgai (also spelt Ku-ring-gai, Guringai) is a name referring to an Indigenous Australian people of New South Wales. Fraser’s 1892 map. Kuringgai is marked VIII. In 1892, John Fraser used the term Kuringgai (Kurinġgai in his phonetic notation) to refer to the people inhabiting a large stretch of the central coastline of New South Wales. “ The next great tribe is the Kuringgai on the sea coast. Their ‘taurai’ (hunting ground or territory) is known to extend north to the Macleay River, and I found that southwards it reached the Hawkesbury. then after, by examining the remains of the language of the natives about Sydney and southwards, and by other tests, I assured myself that the country thereabout was occupied by sub-tribes of the Kurringgai Fraser 1892 Fraser 1892 came up with the name Kurringai to describe a people, our peoples. Guri / Koori meaning Black man, Ngai meaning Black Woman or belonging too, bring the words together and get GuriNgai. It is also recorded as Wananginee / Wanabee Language. The Northern Sydney Region and Central Coast of NSW Australia has been and still is, home to the Guringai speaKing Mob for generations and seasonally occupied in various locations by the Darginyung people. Pre and post European settlement. These areas were once rich in edible vegetation and native animals. The Guringai Mob hunted and gathered on these Lands for centuries and lived as one with the Land in harmony. Only taKing what was required and caring for the land with practices such as Fire Stick Farming to replenish the vegetation, and dispose of leaf litter. Well known and documented members of the Guringai speaKing mob, the Wanangini, (aka; Broken Bay Tribe) were; Boongaree, Matora, Mosquito, Jewfish, Cora(Gooseberry), Flathead, Long Dick (Boio), Sophy (Booratora) and Charlotte Ashby.(nee.Webb). Thier presence in this area was initially recorded pre 1790. References to these Guringai people are located on Government Blanket list and Court Bench records taken in the Gosford/Wyong areas and Colonial Secretary minutes, which are held at Gosford City Library and early recordings from surveyors John Fraser, Chappell, journals written by Lt. Charles Dawes, Rev.L.E.Threlkeld, Rev. Glennie, Matthew Flinders, Augustus Earl, R.H Mathews and current AIATSIS maps. The traditional areas occupied by the Guringai speaKing comprises of; All of Port Jackson catchment, including the tributaries of Middle Harbour and Lane Cove River, the Broken Bay catchment, including tributaries of Brisbane Water, Cowan Creek and Pitt Water,the water shed along Peats Ridge, following along the range through to Kulnura, as well as the Lakes of the Central Coast to lower Lake Macquarie. Guringai - People of the Coast. Darginyung - People of the Ranges Darug - People of the Plains. (as described by J.Fraser 1892) Charlotte Webb was the very first recorded Aboriginal birth on the Central Coast. She was born in 1823.Charlotte was the daughter of Sophy (Booratora), daughter of Boongaree and Matora. Sophy was sexually assulted by Ship-building merchant, James Webb. Charlotte was the result of this rape. Her body lies at rest at Brady’s Gully, Gosford east. Darginyung were first recorded in the Wyong area in the early 1800’s, when Colonial secretary, William Cape, opened fire on several Guringai Men, Woman and children for stealing corn and potatoes from his fields. Cape sent out 14 men on horse back to “eradicate the problem with whatever force deemed necessary.” To support the Guringai, tribal members from the Wollomi and Sugar Loaf areas ascended on Wyong. Several branches of descendants of these tribal groups remained on the Central Coast in the Wyong area, adopting it as home. Well known and documented Aboriginal man was Billy Faulkner. His presence was initially recorded on the Central Coast in the 1860’s. Billy Faulkner was found drowned in Tuggerah Lake in 1875. Poems were written by Henry Kendall, about Mr. Falkner. Well known and documented Wollomi woman was, Sophy Newman. Her presence was first recorded on the Central Coast in 1865. Descendants of Sophy are still living in the Wyong Shire today. Sophy Bungaree Sophy Bungaree was born in Brisbane Water on the northern arm of Broken Bay, Hawkesbury River in around 1810. At that time the Hawkesbury River was known to the Aboriginal inhabitants as Deerabin. Sophy and her forebears, now known as the Guringai people, occupied the region bounded by Lake Macquarie to the north, Mangrove Mountain to the west and the ridge line running through Duffy’s Forest to the south. This area encompassed the Hawkesbury River Basin with their neighbours to the south the Eora occupying the Sydney Basin. During the last glacial maximum and up until about 10,000 years ago the Hawkesbury River Basin, now known as Broken Bay, and Sydney Harbour were river valley environments occupied by Aboriginal people. It would have been an easy matter to just walk across the Hawkesbury River at that time as it would have been far less substantial than it is today. Guringai people occupied land on both sides of the Hawkesbury River within the area enclosed by this large basin. The Guringai people are salt water people who nurtured and exploited a very rich and diverse environment in terms of food resources. The river systems, swamps, lakes and ocean provided an abundant source of protein and the alluvial flats that bound the rivers and swamps provided an abundance of fresh fruit and vegetables including the ever important Long Yam Dioscorea transversa. You can still find the Long Yam growing today in the richer alluvial soils that encompass the many creeks and streams throughout the area. The Guringai people had their first encounter with the European settlers (occupiers) in 1789 when Captain Hunter and his crew rowed into the north arm of Broken Bay. The idea of settling Broken Bay did not arise until James Webb, an entrepreneur and ex member of the New South Wales Corps, applied for and was granted a lease to occupy land in Brisbane Water in October of 1823. James Webb was an interesting fellow. The brother of two first fleeters, Robert and Thomas, he arrived in New South Wales (as Australia was then known) as a Corporal in His Majesty’s New South Wales Corps on the Scarborough in 1790. He was first granted land by Lieutenant-Governor Grose at Windsor, on the upper Hawkesbury when he was discharged from the Army in 1794. He grew corn for the colony, built ships and plotted his next exploits. He then acquired land at Cockle Bay (now Darling Harbour) from where he sold timber. James was given a further grant near Wiseman’s Ferry on a creek now known as Webb’s Creek. He once bragged how he shot Aboriginal men who were attacKing his boat at point blank range. hannaIn 1823 he was granted the land that included all of the now Woy Woy and permission to graze cattle all the way out to Patonga. He continued to cut and sell timber, build ships and became very influential. It was around this time that Sophy first came into contact with the then 57 year old James Webb. She was only between 13 and 14 years of age when he molested her and their daughter Charlotte Webb (on right in 1904) was born in 1824. James Webb never had much if anything to do with the nurturing or upbringing of his daughter Charlotte and it is not surprising that when Charlotte finally passed away in 1913 he was not mentioned on her death certificate (more about that shortly). Charlotte was born on the Hawkesbury River (one document says), or Gosford (another says), and was brought up by her mother and later on, her defacto stepfather John Smith. Sophy was mentioned several times in the historical records beginning in 1827 then 1831 and 1835 where her conduct was described as being “of good conduct”. Some confusion remains today amongst scholars in relation to how Sophy is spelt. In one document (Charlotte’s death certificate) Sophy is spelt thus “Sophia”, in all the proceeding documents she is spelt “Sophy”. The later (Sophy) is the correct spelling as this is the pronunciation used throughout time and is also the spelling and pronunciation of the family members including one of Charlotte’s children and Sophy’s grandchildren who were given their names in her honour. Sophy grew into a relationship with a man by the name of John Smith while Charlotte was a young adolescent, and this relationship endured right up until Sophy passed away (a date that is unknown to us at this point in time). Charlotte met a convict farm hand by the name of Joseph Ashby in the late1830s. Joseph was worKing for Henry Donnison, a prominent landholder and political figure on the Central Coast at that time. Joseph Ashby was a figure of misfortune who did it very tough, especially during his early childhood. He was born in Colchester, England in 1810, the son of Lydia Hardy and Joseph Ashby. Joseph snr died when young Joseph was only 11 years of age. Joseph’s mother Lydia died in 1823. Joseph was a bit of a street dweller and had to resort to stealing and scavenging to be able to survive. Joseph and another fellow, Thomas Balls, stole a basket of raisins from a merchant in Colchester in 1831. They were both duly arrested and interned to await trial. At the ensuing trial Joseph Ashby was found guilty of larceny and convicted, with a sentence of 14 years and transportation to the penal colony of Australia. Thomas Balls was found not guilty and set free. Joseph Ashby was transported to Australia on the convict transport Asia 9 in 1832. Joseph Ashby was a kind man of good character and only resorted to crime out of desperation. Joseph applied for a “ticket of leave” in May of 1838 for the Brisbane Water region; on his application he is described as being prisoner number 32/208, 28 years of age, 5 feet 2 inches in height, having fair complexion, light brown hair and blue eyes. This ticket of leave was granted in June 1838. As Joseph Ashby was a convict prisoner and Charlotte Webb an Aboriginal person, permission had to be sought from the Governor to marry and this was granted in 1845. Joseph Ashby was 32 and Charlotte Webb 22 according to the permission to marry document when they married in a small sandstone church in East Gosford on the 2nd April 1845. This church still stands today. Charlotte Ashby, nee Webb, had many children during the years of her marriage to Joseph Ashby, until he passed away in Wyong on the 11th December 1864, they were: Hannah Ashby 1845; James Ashby 1847; John Ashby (my great grandfather) 1849; Eliza Jane Ashby 1853; Amelia Ashby 1859; and Sarah Ashby 1862. Eva Ashby 1865; Walter Ashby 1868 (born on the banks of the Hawkesbury at Moonee Moonee crossing); and Sophy Ashby 1870 were all born after Joseph Ashby’s death. Charlotte Ashby was tossed from pillar to post in terms of the way she was treated (or should I say mistreated) at the hands of her employers. It was thought to be acceptable by society to expect to be used for the sexual pleasure of your employer in those days and it was a very common practice. As a result Charlotte had several children outside the sanctity of marriage. One of the fathers to Charlotte’s children, William Smith, who had an on and off relationship with Charlotte, accused her of stealing from him while in Blue Gum Flat Tavern on the 1st July 1869 the sum of £5. Charlotte was due to appear in court in Sydney 100 kilometres south on Thursday 2nd September 1869. She walked through the prickly heath country of the sandstone escarpment 100 kilometres to Sydney to appear in court and 100 kilometres back when found not guilty. In 1869 Charlotte’s two youngest children were taken away by the Benevolent Society at the instigation of proceedings by the very same William Smith on the grounds that Charlotte was an unfit mother. These children were later returned. Charlotte lived out her life in dire poverty amongst those who lived off the fat of the land (her ancestral land) and died in her ramshackle old hut at a railway siding in Narara at the ripe old age of 89 years in 1913. During her lifetime things could well have been very different if Aboriginal people had been entitled to inherit and own land. Her father James Webb left all of his holdings to Samuel Coulter and Robert Cox when he passed away in 1848. They became very rich and influential families as a result. Although all of Charlotte’s children were born in the Gosford to Wyong area most of them eventually moved to Sydney and further afield to pursue their chosen careers. I can only speak for my great grandfather John Ashby whose children Hanna Matilda, James, Bertha, Charlotte, Henry, Joseph, Margaret, William and Mary all traversed frequently between the Central Coast of New South Wales and Balmain, where they lived until they married. Charlotte’s children James and Eliza Jane also lived in the same street in Balmain intermittently with their spouses and children during the course of their lives. Charlotte Ashby nee Webb was finally laid to rest in the cemetery now known as Brady’s Gully Cemetery in Gosford in 1913.
There she still lies. This story is dedicated to the memory of my forebear Charlotte Ashby who owned some of the richest country in Australia but died poverty-stricken and lies in a pauper’s grave.
Mosquito The capture of Mosquito A series of Aboriginal attacks and robberies, mainly at the Hawkesbury were reported during June 1805, and a several fires at Hawkesbury farms were found to have been set by an Aboriginal girl who had lived with a European family since infancy. The 13 year old arsonist appeared to have been encouraged to secretly burn the farmhouses by a “wild” Aboriginal boy who had befriended her. On 7 July a breakthrough was reported in the Gazette: “Last week several Natives suspected of being concerned in the late Outrages, were committed to the Parramatta Gaol by the Rev. Mr Marsden; but were liberated on Tuesday last on a promise to use their utmost endeavours to apprehend the Native called MUSQUITO, who has been reported by the Natives themselves, and also by the White Men who have gone in search of them, as the Principal in all the wanton acts of Cruelty they have perpetrated. We are happy to add, that they fulfilled their promise, and the above Culprit was last night lodged in Parramatta Gaol.” Mosquito and a fellow Aboriginal offender named Bulldog attempted to break out of Parramatta Gaol (Sydney Gazette 11.8.1805): “During the night of Monday last two Natives confined in Parramatta gaol as the most active in the late unprovoked barbarities attempted to break from custody, but were prevented by a prisoner, who overhearing them alarmed the turnkey. They had ingeniously contrived to loosen some of the stone work by the help of a spike nail, having previously avowed a determination to set fire to the building,and destroy every white man within it. They attacked the man who had occasioned their disappointment, but were secured without mischief; and in consideration of his good conduct in preventing the escape of two criminals whose turpitude might have engendered new excesses, the informer was set at liberty by order of the resident Magistrate”. Mosquito and Bulldog were transported to Norfolk Island on HMS Buffalo, leaving Sydney on 22 August 1805 and reaching the island on 5 September. Governor King wrote to Captain Piper that: “having been given up by the other natives as principals in their late outrages [they] are sent to Norfolk Island where they are to be kept, and if they can be brought to labour will earn their food - but as they must not be let starve for want of subsistence - they may be victualled from the .stores”. In 1810 both men were employed in the tedious work of charcoal burning (for Mosquito and Bulldog see R.Wright, The Forgotten Generation, 1986, p29-34). Although an Aboriginal warrior, Mosquito resembled, in many ways, the later bushrangers [note also this usage of “bush” in its modern Australian sense in the nickname “Bush Mosquito” and Caley’s use of the term “bush natives” as early as 1801]. The use of the term “outrages” to describe Aboriginal attacks has a political aspect. It reflects an unconscious comparison of the “Aboriginal problem” with the “Irish problem”. Attacks on British interests in Ireland by secret nationalist organisations were usually termed “outrages”, meaning “terrorist attacks”. In January 1813 Mosquito was transferred to Hobart Town, Van Diemens Land [Tasmania] where he worked as a stockman and as a tracker for police searching for runaway convicts. He was arrested after striKing a convict who insulted him and led a gang of Tasmanian Aboriginal warriors in guerrilla attacks on farms. After five years on the run he was captured and hanged in Hobart Gaol in 1824. A poignant statement made by Mosquito in Hobart Gaol said to have been taken down by the gaoler there bears a strong similarity to the pidgin English used by Bennelong in a letter dictated in 1796, Mosquito's statement reads: “Hanging no good for black fellow…. very good for white fellow, for he used to it …I stop wit white fellow, learn to like blanket, clothes, bakky, rum, bread, all same white fellow: white fellow giv'd me. By and by Gubernor send me catch bushranger - promise me plenty clothes, and send me back Sydney, my own country: I catch him, Gubernor tell too much a lie, never send me. I knockit about camp, prisoner no liket me then, givet me nothing, call me bloody hangman nose. I knock one fellow down, give waddie, constable take me. I then walk away in bush, I get along wid mob….mob rob the hut….mob make a rush, stock-keeper shoot plenty, mob spear some. Dat de way me no come all same your house. Never like see Gubernor any more. White fellow soon kill all black fellow….” (Mosquito quoted in K.Willey, 1979, p182) On 7 July 1805 a NSW government order was published in the Sydney Gazette which marked the end of the conflict in the whole colony. It preceded a meeting at Parramatta between Governor King and Aboriginal representatives from most areas of settlement: ///////////// some history //////////// &about_txt1=What We Do &about_txt2=Promote our Family history and culture
through:

• Family Gatherings

• Corporation Members Meetings
Guringai Aboriginal Tribal members meetings

• Family History Presentations
Educatonal Workshops and Presentations

• Aboriginal Art
personalised designs by Guringai Descendants

• Welcome to Country

• Didgeridoo Lessons and Performances

• Guringai Culture
Cultural Heritage Assessments and Reports

• Guringai Language Translations

• Language Books
the Dept of Aboriginal Affairs have funded our first two editions of Early learner language books for us to share with the schools and peoples in our country. ta DAA.

• Educational Resources
Educatonal Material and Research Archives for students and teachers.

&about_txt3=About Us &about_txt4=Trying to unite the traditional clans of the Guringai.

The coastal strip extending from Lane Cove to Lake Macquarie is the traditional Lands of the Wanangine/Guringai Peoples. Prior to European settlement we lived harmoniously, hunting and fishing, surviving for thousands of generations on the foods provided by our Country. With an abundance of food and water sources available to our ancestors and well established trade opportunities with neighbouring tribes, ther was no need to travel from our lands. &about_txt5=READ MORE &about_txt6=Company Profile &about_txt7=Guringai Tribal Link Aboriginal Corporation
Est. 2003, by Warren Whitfield and Ray Baker, with 25 family names and signatures registered the corporation in Canberra. &about_txt8=Tracey Howie
Tracey has been running the show ever since 2004. We are very proud of her. &about_img1=images/second1.jpg& &about_img2=images/second2.jpg& &about_readmore_title1=About Title #1 &about_readmore_txt1=Our strong spirituality and cultural beliefs, including our traditional language, stories, dances, songs, rituals and lores develped the everbonding connection we have to our country. Our ancestors existed as one with the land and waters wihtin our traditional area, respecting the fragility of eco systems and conscious of the necessity for fire stick farming to rejuvinate vegetation and reduce leaf litter - fire fuels. Within the Sydney Metropolitan area there are approximately 5000 registered Guringai sites and many more either not registered or destroyed by developments. Our ancestors were keen rock artist, with the evidence displayed throughout our country on sandstone platforms, shelters and outcrops, in the form of engravings or charcoal or ochre drawings. In recent years, people have attempted to regroove various sites within the Sydney Metro area. This has only caused further destruction to the sites with severeal engravings being incorrectly regrooved. This activity is not and has never been approved by the Guringai Peoples. These sites are our vital link to the past and a portion of our cultural generational equities. There are more family members getting in contact with us every year. ///////////// services //////////// &services_txt1=Services Overview &services_txt2=Didgeridoo Lessons and Performances
Kyle is playing what you are listening to when the sound is on this website. &services_txt3=READ MORE &services_txt4=Aboriginal Artwork for sale
Ranging from Canvas Paintings to Wood Carvings, clap sticks etc, &services_txt5=READ MORE &services_txt6=Services List &services_txt7=• Guringai Family History Presentations
• Educatonal Workshops and Presentations

• Aboriginal Art
personalised designs by Guringai Descendants

• Welcome to Country

• Didgeridoo Lessons and Performances

• Guringai Culture
Cultural Heritage Assessments and Reports

• Guringai Language Translations

• Language Books
the Dept of Aboriginal Affairs have funded our first two editions of Early learner language books for us to share with the schools and peoples in our country. ta DAA.

• Educational Resources
Educatonal Material and Research Archives for students and teachers.

&services_txt8=Guringai History &services_txt9=Kuringgai (also spelt Ku-ring-gai, Guringai) is a name referring to an Indigenous Australian people of New South Wales. Fraser’s 1892 map. Kuringgai is marked VIII. In 1892, John Fraser used the term Kuringgai (Kurinġgai in his phonetic notation) to refer to the people inhabiting a large stretch of the central coastline of New South Wales.
The next great tribe is the Kuringgai on the sea coast. Their ‘taurai’ (hunting ground or territory) is known to extend north to the Macleay River, and I found that southwards it reached the Hawkesbury. then after, by examining the remains of the language of the natives about Sydney and southwards, and by other tests, &services_txt10=READ MORE &services_img1=images/third1.jpg& &services_img2=images/third2.jpg& &services_readmore_title1=Services #1 &services_readmore_title2=Services #2 &services_readmore_title3=Services #3 &services_readmore_txt1= his is an acclaimed didge musician and aboriginal dancer. Email: kyle@guringai.com.au &services_readmore_txt2=We have a large range of Guringai suppliers that do Paintings, Boomerangs, Clap Sticks, Didgeridoos, Personalised Boomerang Badges, ornamental spears, shields and much more. Hand made by traditional owners for a resonalbe price. Contact us at tracey@guringai.com.au &services_readmore_txt3= I assured myself that the country thereabout was occupied by sub-tribes of the Kurringgai" Fraser 1892 Fraser 1892 came up with the name Kurringai to describe a people, our peoples. Guri / Koori meaning Black man, Ngai meaning Black Woman or belonging too, bring the words together and get GuriNgai. It is also recorded as Wananginee/ Wanabee Language. The Northern Sydney Region and Central Coast of NSW Australia has been and still is, home to the Guringai speaKing Mob for generations and seasonally occupied in various locations by the Darginyung people. Pre and post European settlement. These areas were once rich in edible vegetation and native animals. The Guringai Mob hunted and gathered on these Lands for centuries and lived as one with the Land in harmony. Only taKing what was required and caring for the land with practices such as Fire Stick Farming to replenish the vegetation, and dispose of leaf litter. Well known and documented members of the Guringai speaKing mob, the Wanangini, (aka; Broken Bay Tribe) were; Boongaree, Matora, Mosquito, Jewfish, Cora(Gooseberry), Flathead, Long Dick (Boio), Sophy (Booratora) and Charlotte Ashby.(nee.Webb). Thier presence in this area was initially recorded pre 1790. References to these Guringai people are located on Government Blanket list and Court Bench records taken in the Gosford/Wyong areas and Colonial Secretary minutes, which are held at Gosford City Library and early recordings from surveyors John Fraser, Chappell, journals written by Lt. Charles Dawes, Rev.L.E.Threlkeld, Rev. Glennie, Matthew Flinders, Augustus Earl, R.H Mathews and current AIATSIS maps. The traditional areas occupied by the Guringai speaKing comprises of; All of Port Jackson catchment, including the tributaries of Middle Harbour and Lane Cove River, the Broken Bay catchment, including tributaries of Brisbane Water, Cowan Creek and Pitt Water,the water shed along Peats Ridge, following along the range through to Kulnura, as well as the Lakes of the Central Coast to lower Lake Macquarie. Guringai - People of the Coast. Darginyung - People of the Ranges Darug - People of the Plains. (as described by J.Fraser 1892) Charlotte Webb was the very first recorded Aboriginal birth on the Central Coast. She was born in 1823.Charlotte was the daughter of Sophy (Booratora), daughter of Boongaree and Matora. Sophy was sexually assulted by Ship-building merchant, James Webb. Charlotte was the result of this rape. Her body lies at rest at Brady’s Gully, Gosford east. Darginyung were first recorded in the Wyong area in the early 1800’s, when Colonial secretary, William Cape, opened fire on several Guringai Men, Woman and children for stealing corn and potatoes from his fields. Cape sent out 14 men on horse back to “eradicate the problem with whatever force deemed necessary.” To support the Guringai, tribal members from the Wollomi and Sugar Loaf areas ascended on Wyong. Several branches of descendants of these tribal groups remained on the Central Coast in the Wyong area, adopting it as home. Well known and documented Aboriginal man was Billy Faulkner. His presence was initially recorded on the Central Coast in the 1860’s. Billy Faulkner was found drowned in Tuggerah Lake in 1875. Poems were written by Henry Kendall, about Mr. Falkner. Well known and documented Wollomi woman was, Sophy Newman. Her presence was first recorded on the Central Coast in 1865. Descendants of Sophy are still living in the Wyong Shire today. Sophy Bungaree Sophy Bungaree was born in Brisbane Water on the northern arm of Broken Bay, Hawkesbury River in around 1810. At that time the Hawkesbury River was known to the Aboriginal inhabitants as Deerabin. Sophy and her forebears, now known as the Guringai people, occupied the region bounded by Lake Macquarie to the north, Mangrove Mountain to the west and the ridge line running through Duffy’s Forest to the south. This area encompassed the Hawkesbury River Basin with their neighbours to the south the Eora occupying the Sydney Basin. During the last glacial maximum and up until about 10,000 years ago the Hawkesbury River Basin, now known as Broken Bay, and Sydney Harbour were river valley environments occupied by Aboriginal people. It would have been an easy matter to just walk across the Hawkesbury River at that time as it would have been far less substantial than it is today. Guringai people occupied land on both sides of the Hawkesbury River within the area enclosed by this large basin. The Guringai people are salt water people who nurtured and exploited a very rich and diverse environment in terms of food resources. The river systems, swamps, lakes and ocean provided an abundant source of protein and the alluvial flats that bound the rivers and swamps provided an abundance of fresh fruit and vegetables including the ever important Long Yam Dioscorea transversa. You can still find the Long Yam growing today in the richer alluvial soils that encompass the many creeks and streams throughout the area. The Guringai people had their first encounter with the European settlers (occupiers) in 1789 when Captain Hunter and his crew rowed into the north arm of Broken Bay. The idea of settling Broken Bay did not arise until James Webb, an entrepreneur and ex member of the New South Wales Corps, applied for and was granted a lease to occupy land in Brisbane Water in October of 1823. James Webb was an interesting fellow. The brother of two first fleeters, Robert and Thomas, he arrived in New South Wales (as Australia was then known) as a Corporal in His Majesty’s New South Wales Corps on the Scarborough in 1790. He was first granted land by Lieutenant-Governor Grose at Windsor, on the upper Hawkesbury when he was discharged from the Army in 1794. He grew corn for the colony, built ships and plotted his next exploits. He then acquired land at Cockle Bay (now Darling Harbour) from where he sold timber. James was given a further grant near Wiseman’s Ferry on a creek now known as Webb’s Creek. He once bragged how he shot Aboriginal men who were attacKing his boat at point blank range. hannaIn 1823 he was granted the land that included all of the now Woy Woy and permission to graze cattle all the way out to Patonga. He continued to cut and sell timber, build ships and became very influential. It was around this time that Sophy first came into contact with the then 57 year old James Webb. She was only between 13 and 14 years of age when he molested her and their daughter Charlotte Webb (on right in 1904) was born in 1824. James Webb never had much if anything to do with the nurturing or upbringing of his daughter Charlotte and it is not surprising that when Charlotte finally passed away in 1913 he was not mentioned on her death certificate (more about that shortly). Charlotte was born on the Hawkesbury River (one document says), or Gosford (another says), and was brought up by her mother and later on, her defacto stepfather John Smith. Sophy was mentioned several times in the historical records beginning in 1827 then 1831 and 1835 where her conduct was described as being “of good conduct”. Some confusion remains today amongst scholars in relation to how Sophy is spelt. In one document (Charlotte’s death certificate) Sophy is spelt thus “Sophia”, in all the proceeding documents she is spelt “Sophy”. The later (Sophy) is the correct spelling as this is the pronunciation used throughout time and is also the spelling and pronunciation of the family members including one of Charlotte’s children and Sophy’s grandchildren who were given their names in her honour. Sophy grew into a relationship with a man by the name of John Smith while Charlotte was a young adolescent, and this relationship endured right up until Sophy passed away (a date that is unknown to us at this point in time). Charlotte met a convict farm hand by the name of Joseph Ashby in the late1830s. Joseph was worKing for Henry Donnison, a prominent landholder and political figure on the Central Coast at that time. Joseph Ashby was a figure of misfortune who did it very tough, especially during his early childhood. He was born in Colchester, England in 1810, the son of Lydia Hardy and Joseph Ashby. Joseph snr died when young Joseph was only 11 years of age. Joseph’s mother Lydia died in 1823. Joseph was a bit of a street dweller and had to resort to stealing and scavenging to be able to survive. Joseph and another fellow, Thomas Balls, stole a basket of raisins from a merchant in Colchester in 1831. They were both duly arrested and interned to await trial. At the ensuing trial Joseph Ashby was found guilty of larceny and convicted, with a sentence of 14 years and transportation to the penal colony of Australia. Thomas Balls was found not guilty and set free. Joseph Ashby was transported to Australia on the convict transport Asia 9 in 1832. Joseph Ashby was a kind man of good character and only resorted to crime out of desperation. Joseph applied for a “ticket of leave” in May of 1838 for the Brisbane Water region; on his application he is described as being prisoner number 32/208, 28 years of age, 5 feet 2 inches in height, having fair complexion, light brown hair and blue eyes. This ticket of leave was granted in June 1838. As Joseph Ashby was a convict prisoner and Charlotte Webb an Aboriginal person, permission had to be sought from the Governor to marry and this was granted in 1845. Joseph Ashby was 32 and Charlotte Webb 22 according to the permission to marry document when they married in a small sandstone church in East Gosford on the 2nd April 1845. This church still stands today. Charlotte Ashby, nee Webb, had many children during the years of her marriage to Joseph Ashby, until he passed away in Wyong on the 11th December 1864, they were: Hannah Ashby 1845; James Ashby 1847; John Ashby (my great grandfather) 1849; Eliza Jane Ashby 1853; Amelia Ashby 1859; and Sarah Ashby 1862. Eva Ashby 1865; Walter Ashby 1868 (born on the banks of the Hawkesbury at Moonee Moonee crossing); and Sophy Ashby 1870 were all born after Joseph Ashby’s death. Charlotte Ashby was tossed from pillar to post in terms of the way she was treated (or should I say mistreated) at the hands of her employers. It was thought to be acceptable by society to expect to be used for the sexual pleasure of your employer in those days and it was a very common practice. As a result Charlotte had several children outside the sanctity of marriage. One of the fathers to Charlotte’s children, William Smith, who had an on and off relationship with Charlotte, accused her of stealing from him while in Blue Gum Flat Tavern on the 1st July 1869 the sum of £5. Charlotte was due to appear in court in Sydney 100 kilometres south on Thursday 2nd September 1869. She walked through the prickly heath country of the sandstone escarpment 100 kilometres to Sydney to appear in court and 100 kilometres back when found not guilty. In 1869 Charlotte’s two youngest children were taken away by the Benevolent Society at the instigation of proceedings by the very same William Smith on the grounds that Charlotte was an unfit mother. These children were later returned. Charlotte lived out her life in dire poverty amongst those who lived off the fat of the land (her ancestral land) and died in her ramshackle old hut at a railway siding in Narara at the ripe old age of 89 years in 1913. During her lifetime things could well have been very different if Aboriginal people had been entitled to inherit and own land. Her father James Webb left all of his holdings to Samuel Coulter and Robert Cox when he passed away in 1848. They became very rich and influential families as a result. Although all of Charlotte’s children were born in the Gosford to Wyong area most of them eventually moved to Sydney and further afield to pursue their chosen careers. I can only speak for my great grandfather John Ashby whose children Hanna Matilda, James, Bertha, Charlotte, Henry, Joseph, Margaret, William and Mary all traversed frequently between the Central Coast of New South Wales and Balmain, where they lived until they married. Charlotte’s children James and Eliza Jane also lived in the same street in Balmain intermittently with their spouses and children during the course of their lives. Charlotte Ashby nee Webb was finally laid to rest in the cemetery now known as Brady’s Gully Cemetery in Gosford in 1913.
There she still lies. This story is dedicated to the memory of my forebear Charlotte Ashby who owned some of the richest country in Australia but died poverty-stricken and lies in a pauper’s grave.
Mosquito The capture of Mosquito A series of Aboriginal attacks and robberies, mainly at the Hawkesbury were reported during June 1805, and a several fires at Hawkesbury farms were found to have been set by an Aboriginal girl who had lived with a European family since infancy. The 13 year old arsonist appeared to have been encouraged to secretly burn the farmhouses by a “wild” Aboriginal boy who had befriended her. On 7 July a breakthrough was reported in the Gazette: “Last week several Natives suspected of being concerned in the late Outrages, were committed to the Parramatta Gaol by the Rev. Mr Marsden; but were liberated on Tuesday last on a promise to use their utmost endeavours to apprehend the Native called MUSQUITO, who has been reported by the Natives themselves, and also by the White Men who have gone in search of them, as the Principal in all the wanton acts of Cruelty they have perpetrated. We are happy to add, that they fulfilled their promise, and the above Culprit was last night lodged in Parramatta Gaol.” Mosquito and a fellow Aboriginal offender named Bulldog attempted to break out of Parramatta Gaol (Sydney Gazette 11.8.1805): “During the night of Monday last two Natives confined in Parramatta gaol as the most active in the late unprovoked barbarities attempted to break from custody, but were prevented by a prisoner, who overhearing them alarmed the turnkey. They had ingeniously contrived to loosen some of the stone work by the help of a spike nail, having previously avowed a determination to set fire to the building,and destroy every white man within it. They attacked the man who had occasioned their disappointment, but were secured without mischief; and in consideration of his good conduct in preventing the escape of two criminals whose turpitude might have engendered new excesses, the informer was set at liberty by order of the resident Magistrate”. Mosquito and Bulldog were transported to Norfolk Island on HMS Buffalo, leaving Sydney on 22 August 1805 and reaching the island on 5 September. Governor King wrote to Captain Piper that: “having been given up by the other natives as principals in their late outrages [they] are sent to Norfolk Island where they are to be kept, and if they can be brought to labour will earn their food - but as they must not be let starve for want of subsistence - they may be victualled from the .stores”. In 1810 both men were employed in the tedious work of charcoal burning (for Mosquito and Bulldog see R.Wright, The Forgotten Generation, 1986, p29-34). Although an Aboriginal warrior, Mosquito resembled, in many ways, the later bushrangers [note also this usage of “bush” in its modern Australian sense in the nickname “Bush Mosquito” and Caley’s use of the term “bush natives” as early as 1801]. The use of the term “outrages” to describe Aboriginal attacks has a political aspect. It reflects an unconscious comparison of the “Aboriginal problem” with the “Irish problem”. Attacks on British interests in Ireland by secret nationalist organisations were usually termed “outrages”, meaning “terrorist attacks”. In January 1813 Mosquito was transferred to Hobart Town, Van Diemens Land [Tasmania] where he worked as a stockman and as a tracker for police searching for runaway convicts. He was arrested after striKing a convict who insulted him and led a gang of Tasmanian Aboriginal warriors in guerrilla attacks on farms. After five years on the run he was captured and hanged in Hobart Gaol in 1824. A poignant statement made by Mosquito in Hobart Gaol said to have been taken down by the gaoler there bears a strong similarity to the pidgin English used by Bennelong in a letter dictated in 1796, Mosquito's statement reads: “Hanging no good for black fellow…. very good for white fellow, for he used to it …I stop wit white fellow, learn to like blanket, clothes, bakky, rum, bread, all same white fellow: white fellow giv'd me. By and by Gubernor send me catch bushranger - promise me plenty clothes, and send me back Sydney, my own country: I catch him, Gubernor tell too much a lie, never send me. I knockit about camp, prisoner no liket me then, givet me nothing, call me bloody hangman nose. I knock one fellow down, give waddie, constable take me. I then walk away in bush, I get along wid mob….mob rob the hut….mob make a rush, stock-keeper shoot plenty, mob spear some. Dat de way me no come all same your house. Never like see Gubernor any more. White fellow soon kill all black fellow….” (Mosquito quoted in K.Willey, 1979, p182) On 7 July 1805 a NSW government order was published in the Sydney Gazette which marked the end of the conflict in the whole colony. It preceded a meeting at Parramatta between Governor King and Aboriginal representatives from most areas of settlement: ///////////// Education //////////// &projects_txt1=Education &projects_txt2=Known Family Names of the Guringai Mob are
Bungaree, Matora, Cora, Toura, Mosquito, Long Dick, Short Dick, Jewfish, Grewin, Dianna, Sophie, Kitty, Charlotte, Ashby, Margaret, Ellen, Webb, Boyd, Butler, Wyliey, Robinson, Howie, Smith, Walker, Dudley, Robley, Shilcock, Baker, Whitfield, Ford, Carter, Clouton, Fletcher, Sims, Lambert, Giles, Rowlings, Bimson, Evers, Starkey, Cartwright.

Early Learning Language Books
Available through Guringai Tribal Link Aboriginal Corporation Email: wozza@guringai.com.au< &projects_txt3=Best Project &projects_txt4=King Bungaree
A troop of merry chiildren, Light hearted, blighte and gay, Went rambling in the forest, On a bright and sunny day. &projects_txt5=READ MORE &projects_txt6=John Bungaree &projects_txt7=John Bungaree (Boongarees last son)
There is no accurate account of the Aboriginal population at the end of Macquarie’s governorship, but the rate of deaths might be gauged from the fact that Gov Phillip in 1788 had estimated the population in the area between Botany Bay and Broken Bay alone was 1,500, yet by 1830 the most commonly estimated population of Aboriginals living within the boundaries of the nineteen counties was 500. Perhaps even more illustrative of the impacts of white settlement on Bungaree and his tribe is the fate of Bungaree’s youngest son, John Bungaree. One year old at the time of his father’s death, John was adopted by Stephen Coxen of ‘Dart Brook’ on the Hunter River, who sent him as a boarder to the Normal Institution at Hyde Park, along with his own sons. John was an excellent student, and won prizes for writing and geography: One of the boys of this [Arithmetic] class , Master John Bungarrie, an aboriginal native, deserves particular notice. He is about eleven years of age, and his acquirements are of a kind to prove a superiority over boys of his age, in several departments. Following Stephen Coxen’s death in 1844, John Bungaree’s care was assumed by his brother Charles, and he lived with the family at Daradine Station near Toowoomba. He worked as a servant and stockrider before joining the Native Police at Calladoon on the Macintyre River, including becoming Storekeeper and eventually reaching the rank of Sergeant. William Ridley, in evidence before the Select Committee on the Native Mounted Police in Brisbane 1861, was to report on the impacts of white settlement on this member of a proud civilisation that had existed for over fifty thousand years: [John] Bungaree, who after taKing prizes at Sydney College, speaKing good Latin, and behaving as a gentleman in elegant society, returned to the bush, and then entered the black police, once said in a melancholy tone to Lieutenant Fulford (who repeated the remark to me at Surat on the Condamine) ‘I wish I had never been taken out of the bush, and educated as I have been, for I cannot be a white man, and they will never look on me as one of themselves; and I cannot be a blackfellow, I am disgusted by their way of living.’ ’ &projects_img1=images/fourth1.jpg& &projects_readmore_title1=Projects #1 &projects_readmore_txt1=When a freind they love approaches, the children cease to sing, And soon are chatting kindly, with old Bungaree the King, "Pray tell us, King Bungaree" They ask with eager words, "Why in this south'rn land abide, such curious beasts and birds? Why swans, that to strange climes belong, are robed in snowy white, While those in this fair land alone, wear feather black as night, Why laughs the odd Goburra, at morn and ev'ning hours, And have the Tewinga, been taught to build their bowers? And tell us, good King Bungaree, about the Mullangong, For truely this strange creature, has puzzled us too long. And, dear good old King Bungaree, we know you'll tell us true, Why Weelah's ne'er sit hatching, as other birds must do? And tell us, wise old Bungaree, for much we wish to know, Why in so strange a fashion, the Beleck's feathers grow? And last of all, good Bungaree, we'd like to hear you tell, How in the brush the Dilbong, have learnt to ring a bell?" "All that you ask dear children, I learnt in times long flown, When none but tribes of Koree, called this golden land their own." Then to the children clustering round, the good King soft and low, Told of the curious birds and beasts, all that they wished to know. And now one of that merry troop. thats scattered far away, Tells here the old King's stories, on that bright and sunny day. Extracted from King Bungaree's Pyalla and other stories by Mary A FitzGerald. Sydney 1891 Translations; Goburra = Kookaburra Tewinga = Bower bird Mullangong = Platypus Weelah = Brush Turkeys Beleck-Beleck = Lyre bird Dilbong = Bell bird ///////////// support //////////// &support_txt1=Bowen Bungaree &support_txt2=Representation of a woman by a native of New South Wales Bowen Bungaree
(attributed) from John Oxley's Field Book 202, 1823 is the first known drawing on paper by an Indigenous Australian. &support_txt3=READ MORE &support_txt4=Well Known Guries &support_txt5=Matora

1st wife of Boongaree. Mother of Sophee, Dianna. .

Cora Gooseberry

Bungaree's last wife, was known as 'Queen of Sydney to South Head' or 'Queen of Sydney and Botany' and was a Sydney identity for 20 years after Bungaree's death. Cora was often seen wrapped in a government issued blanket, her head covered with a scarf and a clay pipe in her mouth, sitting with her family and other Aborigines camped on the footpath outside the Cricketers’ Arms, a hotel on the corner of Pitt and Market Streets in Sydney. She befriended the owner of the hotel Edward Borton who later owned the Sydney Arms Hotel in Castlereagh Street where he allowed Gooseberry to sleep at nights. Here she was eventually found dead at the age of 75, in July 1852. Borton paid for a gravestone and her burial in the Presbyterian section of the Devonshire Street Cemetery (the Sandhills cemetery on the site of Central Railway). At the time she was thought to be the last of the Kuring-gai clan to survive, but it later became evident that the descendants of the Kuring-gai people had joined remnants of other Aboriginal language groups to ensure their survival. Cora Gooseberry's gravestone is now in the Pioneers cemetery at Botany.

Sophee Bungaree
The family concerned is Warren’s mother’s family, related to me only by marriage. Sophy Bungaree was born in Brisbane Water on the northern arm of Broken Bay, Hawkesbury River in around 1810. At that time the Hawkesbury River was known to the Aboriginal inhabitants as Deerabin. Sophy and her forebears, now known as the Guringai people, occupied the region bounded by Lake Macquarie to the north, Mangrove Mountain to the west and the ridge line running through Duffy’s Forest to the south. This area encompassed the Hawkesbury River Basin with their neighbours to the south the Eora occupying the Sydney Basin. Due to a perturbation in the rotation of the earth, the planet goes through cycles of freeze and thaw every 100,000 years or so. The climax of the freeze component of the cycle is referred to today as the glacial maximum and the last glacial maximum occurred only about 18,000 years ago. During the last glacial maximum 110 metres of the current depth of the ocean was tied up in ice sheets that covered the landscape at that time. Evidence of this glaciation can be seen in coastal Victoria and South Australia where striations caused by the advancing and retreating ice sheets can still be observed. During the last glacial maximum and up until about 10,000 years ago the Hawkesbury River Basin, now known as Broken Bay, and Sydney Harbour were river valley environments occupied by Aboriginal people. It would have been an easy matter to just walk across the Hawkesbury River at that time as it would have been far less substantial than it is today. Guringai people occupied land on both sides of the Hawkesbury River within the area enclosed by this large basin. The same could be said of the Eora people in relation to the Sydney Basin. The Guringai people were salt water people who nurtured and exploited a very rich and diverse environment in terms of food resources. The river systems, swamps, lakes and ocean provided an abundant source of protein and the alluvial flats that bound the rivers and swamps provided an abundance of fresh fruit and vegetables including the ever important Long Yam Dioscorea transversa. You can still find the Long Yam growing today in the richer alluvial soils that encompass the many creeks and streams throughout the area. The Guringai people had their first encounter with the European settlers (occupiers) in 1789 when Captain Hunter and his crew rowed into the north arm of Broken Bay. The idea of settling Broken Bay did not arise until James Webb, an entrepreneur and ex member of the New South Wales Corps, applied for and was granted a lease to occupy land in Brisbane Water in October of 1823. James Webb was an interesting fellow. The brother of two first fleeters, Robert and Thomas, he arrived in New South Wales (as Australia was then known) as a Corporal in His Majesty’s New South Wales Corps on the Scarborough in 1790. He was first granted land by Lieutenant-Governor Grose at Windsor, on the upper Hawkesbury when he was discharged from the Army in 1794. He grew corn for the colony, built ships and plotted his next exploits. He then acquired land at Cockle Bay (now Darling Harbour) from where he sold timber. James was given a further grant near Wiseman’s Ferry on a creek now known as Webb’s Creek. He once bragged how he shot Aboriginal men who were attacking his boat at point blank range. hannaIn 1823 he was granted the land that included all of the now Woy Woy and permission to graze cattle all the way out to Patonga. He continued to cut and sell timber, build ships and became very influential. It was around this time that Sophy first came into contact with the then 57 year old James Webb. She was only between 13 and 14 years of age when he molested her and their daughter Charlotte Webb (on right in 1904) was born in 1824. James Webb never had much if anything to do with the nurturing or upbringing of his daughter Charlotte and it is not surprising that when Charlotte finally passed away in 1913 he was not mentioned on her death certificate (more about that shortly). Charlotte was born on the Hawkesbury River (one document says), or Gosford (another says), and was brought up by her mother and later on, her defacto stepfather John Smith. Sophy was mentioned several times in the historical records beginning in 1827 then 1831 and 1835 where her conduct was described as being “of good conduct”. Some confusion remains today amongst scholars in relation to how Sophy is spelt. In one document (Charlotte’s death certificate) Sophy is spelt thus “Sophia”, in all the proceeding documents she is spelt “Sophy”. The later (Sophy) is the correct spelling as this is the pronunciation used throughout time and is also the spelling and pronunciation of the family members including one of Charlotte’s children and Sophy’s grandchildren who were given their names in her honour. Sophy grew into a relationship with a man by the name of John Smith while Charlotte was a young adolescent, and this relationship endured right up until Sophy passed away (a date that is unknown to us at this point in time). Charlotte met a convict farm hand by the name of Joseph Ashby in the late1830s. Joseph was working for Henry Donnison, a prominent landholder and political figure on the Central Coast at that time. Joseph Ashby was a figure of misfortune who did it very tough, especially during his early childhood. He was born in Colchester, England in 1810, the son of Lydia Hardy and Joseph Ashby. Joseph snr died when young Joseph was only 11 years of age. Joseph’s mother Lydia died in 1823. Joseph was a bit of a street dweller and had to resort to stealing and scavenging to be able to survive. Joseph and another fellow, Thomas Balls, stole a basket of raisins from a merchant in Colchester in 1831. They were both duly arrested and interned to await trial. At the ensuing trial Joseph Ashby was found guilty of larceny and convicted, with a sentence of 14 years and transportation to the penal colony of Australia. Thomas Balls was found not guilty and set free. Joseph Ashby was transported to Australia on the convict transport Asia 9 in 1832. Joseph Ashby was a kind man of good character and only resorted to crime out of desperation. Joseph applied for a “ticket of leave” in May of 1838 for the Brisbane Water region; on his application he is described as being prisoner number 32/208, 28 years of age, 5 feet 2 inches in height, having fair complexion, light brown hair and blue eyes. This ticket of leave was granted in June 1838. As Joseph Ashby was a convict prisoner and Charlotte Webb an Aboriginal person, permission had to be sought from the Governor to marry and this was granted in 1845. Joseph Ashby was 32 and Charlotte Webb 22 according to the permission to marry document when they married in a small sandstone church in East Gosford on the 2nd April 1845. This church still stands today. Charlotte Ashby, nee Webb, had many children during the years of her marriage to Joseph Ashby, until he passed away in Wyong on the 11th December 1864, they were: Hannah Ashby 1845; James Ashby 1847; John Ashby (my great grandfather) 1849; Eliza Jane Ashby 1853; Amelia Ashby 1859; and Sarah Ashby 1862. Eva Ashby 1865; Walter Ashby 1868 (born on the banks of the Hawkesbury at Moonee Moonee crossing); and Sophy Ashby 1870 were all born after Joseph Ashby’s death. Charlotte Ashby was tossed from pillar to post in terms of the way she was treated (or should I say mistreated) at the hands of her employers. It was thought to be acceptable by society to expect to be used for the sexual pleasure of your employer in those days and it was a very common practice. As a result Charlotte had several children outside the sanctity of marriage. Joseph Ashby lies in Blue Gum Flat Cemetery (Lisarow). One of the fathers to Charlotte’s children, William Smith, who had an on and off relationship with Charlotte, accused her of stealing from him while in Blue Gum Flat Tavern on the 1st July 1869 the sum of £5. Charlotte was due to appear in court in Sydney 100 kilometres south on Thursday 2nd September 1869. She walked through the prickly heath country of the sandstone escarpment 100 kilometres to Sydney to appear in court and 100 kilometres back when found not guilty. In 1869 Charlotte’s two youngest children were taken away by the Benevolent Society at the instigation of proceedings by the very same William Smith on the grounds that Charlotte was an unfit mother. These children were later returned. Charlotte lived out her life in dire poverty amongst those who lived off the fat of the land (her ancestral land) and died in her ramshackle old hut at a railway siding in Narara at the ripe old age of 89 years in 1913. During her lifetime things could well have been very different if Aboriginal people had been entitled to inherit and own land. Her father James Webb left all of his holdings to Samuel Coulter and Robert Cox when he passed away in 1848. They became very rich and influential families as a result. Although all of Charlotte’s children were born in the Gosford to Wyong area most of them eventually moved to Sydney and further afield to pursue their chosen careers. I can only speak for my great grandfather John Ashby whose children Hanna Matilda, James, Bertha, Charlotte, Henry, Joseph, Margaret, William and Mary all traversed frequently between the Central Coast of New South Wales and Balmain, where they lived until they married. Charlotte’s children James and Eliza Jane also lived in the same street in Balmain intermittently with their spouses and children during the course of their lives. Charlotte Ashby nee Webb was finally laid to rest in the cemetery now known as Brady’s Gully Cemetery in Gosford in 1913. There she still lies. This story is dedicated to the memory of my forebear Charlotte Ashby who owned some of the richest country in Australia but died poverty-stricken and lies in a pauper’s grave.

Long Dick
The son of Bungaree, who was known to come fromt he North side of Broken Bay. &support_txt6=Did You Know? &support_txt7=King Boongaree sailed with Matthew Flinders.
King of the Broken Bay Aboriginees who settled in Sydney, Bungaree was witty, inteligent, something of a Diplomate. He accompanied Flynders and Philip Parker King on there voyages of exploration. for many years he was a Sydney "charachter", dressed in cast off European Military Clothers, often mentioned in contempory accounts of the colony and often painted or sketched.

Any one who has worked in the field of early australian race relations makes the &support_txt8=READ MORE &support_img1=images/fifth1.jpg& &support_readmore_title1=Support #1 &support_readmore_title2=Support #2 &support_readmore_txt1=Sometime in November 1823, in Moreton Bay Queensland) and probably at Bribie Island, John Oxley, Surveyor General of New South Wales, handed a pencil to a young Aboriginal man who had sailed from Sydney with him on the cutter HMS Mermaid. Bowen Bungaree (also known as Boin, Bowen Toura (Mosquito) or Black Bowen) sketched the figure of an Aboriginal woman on a page in the explorer's Field Book. What seems at first glance to be a simple stick figure is stylistically similar to much larger human shapes outlined in Aboriginal rock engravings throughout the Sydney area. Bowen's sketch and extracts from Oxley's Field Book were first printed in August 1920 in an article by R. H. Cambage and Henry Selkirk in the Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales, Sydney. Selkirk, then Under-Secretary for Lands in New South Wales, inked over the pencil outline so it could be more easily reproduced. There are no records of other drawings by Bowen.On 29 November 1823 Oxley wrote that he 'endeavoured to make the Natives through Bowen (our Sydney native who understood something of what they said) Pamphlet Boin or Bowen Bungaree Boin Matora our desire to see the other two white men'. Thomas Pamphlett and the two other white men, John Finnegan and Richard Parsons, were timber-getters, whose open boat had been wrecked on Moreton Island the previous April and had since lived with Aborigines on Bribie Island. With Finnegan as guide, Oxley in a whaleboat charted and named the Brisbane River (after Governor Sir Thomas Brisbane), returning to the ship on 5 December 1823. Bowen is not mentioned in connection with this expedition and probably remained aboard Mermaid. Bowen's knowledge of the local language might have come from Bungaree, who sailed aboard the tiny sloop Norfolk with Matthew Flinders and was involved in the brief clash with Aboriginal men on 16 July 1799 that gave Skirmish Point its name. After this first hostile encounter, Flinders and his crew had several friendly meetings with Undanbi clansmen who spoke Turrubul, the indigenous language of Bribie Island and the coast north to Coolum on what is today's Sunshine Coast of Queensland. Though Flinders wrote later that 'Bungaree could not understand their language', he was a quick learner and probably passed some of his knowledge to his son.In 1817 the elder Bungaree had also sailed on Mermaid, a snub-nosed cutter of 83 tons, in a survey of the north Australian coast, commanded by Philip Parker King, who drew the first known portrait of Bungaree in 1819. Bowen was trusted to carry a rifle and roamed the Pittwater area near the mouth of the Hawkesbury River, north of Sydney, tracking escaped convicts and bushrangers. Writing in the Sydney Mail in 1861, journalist Charles de Boose quoted John Farrell of Newport, who said that in about 1829 Bowen had shot and killed a bushranger named Casey. Farrell said Bowen, who had been given a rifle by the Governor, 'was very proud of this and took it with him everywhere'. Like his father, who often sported a military jacket and cocked hat, Bowen liked to wear European clothing, especially a dress coat with a swallow tail, but wore his hair 'knotted up behind, and three feathers stuck in it'. After a long illness, King Bungaree died in Sydney in 1830. He was succeeded, said the Launceston Advocate, 'by his eldest son [Bowen], who is the very semblance of the virtues of his departed father'. In November 1831, 'Young Bungaree' was 'floored by a waddie' (waddy or club) at the conclusion of a ritual revenge combat at Woolloomooloo. Bowen and his wife Maria (Man Naney or Maria Jonza, sometimes called 'Queen Maria') usually lived in the Sydney area.They had two children, baptised as Mark and Theela (Theeda) at St. Mary's, Sydney. In 1834 'Member's of Bowen's tribe' were listed as Maria, Jane, Bob, Yama, Tobin (Toby, Bowen's brother) and Dinah (Diana, the fair-haired daughter of one of Bungaree's wives and a European). In 1837 'Bohun' led customs officials from the Broken Bay Customs Station at Barrenjoey to illegal liquor stills and gave information on the whereabouts of some bushrangers. Bowen was rewarded with a boat for his own use, which would have allowed him to visit relatives at Broken Bay, including Boio (Long Dick), a son of King Bungaree and his last wife Cora Gooseberry. A pencil portrait in Sydney's Mitchell Library, titled Aboriginal man with rifle, shows a man with similar features and expression to Mikhailov's 1820 portrait of 'Boin'. Despite the passage of more than 20 years, this man resembles Bowen Bungaree, who carried a rifle and liked to wear a white shirt and trousers. J. C. Waterman, an overseer at the Sydney Domain, recalled that, in 1846, 'Bungaree's [ie Bowen] party comprised eight men, women and children' including King Bungaree's widow Cora Gooseberry and her relation Ricketty Dick. 'They gave exhibitions of boomerang throwing in Hyde Park and roamed about Sydney by day and camped near the Centipede Rock in the Domain'. Bowen and five other Broken Bay men were taken to San Francisco in 1849 by Sydney merchant Richard Hill on the brig William Hill with passengers bound for the California goldfields. He was the only one of these men to return. According to historian Maybanke Anderson: Mr. Hill took the blackfellows with him because they were used to boating, and could be employed to row the boats which were needed to carry the crowds who were flocking to the Eldorado. Black Bowen was the only one of the six who returned. The others all died far from their native home. Black Bowen always spoke with scorn of "that country!! No wood for fire, but plenty cold wind, and plenty, plenty water. No good for me! No good for blackfellow!" Bowen died in Sydney in 1853 at the reputed age of 56. His death was registered at St. Lawrence's Presbyterian Church and his occupation was given as fisherman. John Farrell claimed that Bowen had been ambushed, shot and killed by bushrangers in the Pittwater area while sitting at a campfire.& &support_readmore_txt2=acquaintance to Boongaree, whether as an exapmle of significant colaboration between white and black in many different ways ranging from maritime exploration to ther recapture of excapees, or as a case study exhibiting the essential tragedy of aboriginal history post contact. Taken form King Bungaree by Keih Vincent Smith. ///////////// contacts //////////// &contacts_txt1=Contact Address &contacts_txt2=Guringai Tribal Link Aboriginal Corporation
Descendants of the Traditional Owners of the Central Coast and Northern Sydney Region, &contacts_txt3=Guringai Tribal Link Aboriginal Corporation.
PO Box 4061, Wyongah NSW 2259
Telephone: +43968743
Fax:
E-mail: tracey@guringai.com.au &contacts_txt4=Thank you! &contacts_txt5=All elders who help show us the right path


Kay Williams
Kay works endlessly on on promoting our historical facts, thank you so much for all your hard work.

Dave Ella
His friendship and knowledge has been greatly appreciated.

Bob Pankhurst
Thaks bob for recording and protecting our sites, if it was not for you a lot would be lost forever.

David Pross
For all your help, support and guidance.

The Department of Aboriginal Affairs
for funding our Early Learning Language Books.

Dr Geoff Ford
For always walking a true path. &contacts_txt6=Contact Form &contacts_txt7=Guringai Tribal Link Aboriginal Corportion
PO Box 4061, Wyongah NSW 2259 &contacts_txt8=RESET &contacts_txt9=SEND &contacts_img1=images/sixth1.jpg& ///////////// do not remove //////////// &file_prelouder=1&